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Arab and Turk Conquest in India

Arab and Turk Conquest in India

Arabs in India

  1. Who was the first Muslim to invade India?

Firdausi Shah
Muhammad Ghori
Mohammad Bin Qasim
Mahmood Ghaznavi

Ans: Mohammad Bin Qasim

  1. Which city was called ‘The city of Gold’ by Muhammad-bin-Quasim. ?

Delhi
Multan
Kabul
Kanpur

Ans: Multan

  1. Given below are two statements: one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R
    Assertion (A): Sind was invaded by Mohammad bin Qasin in 712 CE which resulted in the defeat of Dahir
    Reasons (R): Al Bawarji were the dreaded pirates in Sind who plundered the ship destined to the Caliph and Dahir showed his inability to punish Al Bawarjis

Ans: Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of A

8th century BC Sindh was ruled by the Hindushahi dynasty whose founder was Chach or Chach. Chach’s son was Dahir.
At the time of Dahir, some Arab ships coming from Lanka were looted by Al Bawarji of Sindh (Dewal). Al Bawarjis who were dangerous pirates, these robbers looted the ships going towards the Caliph and Dahir was unable to punish the Bawarjis.
This incident became the immediate reason for the invasion of the Arabs on Sindh.
Later, Hajjaj, the governor of Iraq, sent 17-year-old Muhammad bin Qasim to conquer Sindh.
In 712 AD Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sindh which resulted in the defeat of Dahir.
Qasimis army consisted of camels, cavalry, and dangerous machines like stone-throwing manjaniks or magnals and nauphatas or naufatas.
During this conquest, Qasim was assisted by Jats, Medas and rebel Buddhists.
Note: Chachnama was originally a text written in Arabic language which was translated into Persian by ‘Abubakr Kufi’. It mentions the conquest of Sindh by the Arabs.

  1. What was the main reason of attack on India by Arabians—

A Looting riches and wealth
B Spreading Islam
C Social Reform

Ans: A, B

  1. The first Muslim invasion of India took place in the year

647 A.D
1013 A.D
712 A.D
None of these

Ans: 712 A.D

  1. Which of the following was/were also the name(s) of Muhammad Ghori?

Muiz-ud-din Muhammad bin Sam
Shihabud Din Muhammad Ghori
Muhammad of Ghur
All of the above

Ans: All of the above

  1. Muhammad bin Qasim was a general of which caliphate?

A. Abbasid Caliphate
B. Fatimid Caliphate
C. Ottoman Caliphate
D. Umayyad Caliphate

Ans: D. Umayyad Caliphate

  1. From which region did the Arabs invade India in c.712 CE?

A. North-East
B. South-East
C. North-West
D. South-West

Ans: C. North-West

  1. Chachnama records the history of which conquest?

Kushanas
Huns
Arabians
Greeks

Ans: Arabians

The Chach Nama, also known as the Fateh nama Sindh, and as Tarekh- e-Hind wa Sindh, is one of the main historical sources for the history of Sindh in the seventh to eighth centuries CE, written in Persian. The body of the work narrates the Arab inclursions into Sindh of the 7th- 8th centuries CE.

  1. According to Chachnama, what was the Capital of the Indus Country in the 6th and 7th century ?

Deval
Arod
Lodawa
Barmer

Ans: Arod

  1. Who was the governor of Iraq who dispatched an army to Sindh?

A. Harun al-Rashid
B. Saladin
C. Hajjaj
D. Umar ibn al-Khattab

Ans: C. Hajjaj

The Ghaznavids and Mahmud of Ghazni (c.998–1030 CE)

  1. Who was the Hindu Shahi king who first realized the danger posed by the Ghaznanids?

A. Subuktagin
B. Jayapala
C. Mahmud
D. Anandapala

Ans: B. Jayapala

Subuktagin (c. 977–998 CE) Hindu Shahi king, Jayapala, who held territories extending from Punjab and modern Afghanistan, was first to realise the danger posed by the Ghaznanids.
He thus invaded Ghazni in alliance with the son of the former governor of Ghazni, but he had to suffer defeat and Subuktagin succeeded in forcing him into a humiliating treaty

  1. Which territories did Jayapala hold?

A. Punjab and modern Afghanistan
B. Delhi and Agra
C. Rajasthan and Gujarat
D. Maharashtra and Goa

Ans: A. Punjab and modern Afghanistan

  1. How many times did Mahmud of Ghazni invade India ?

5
15
17
7

Ans: 17

  1. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni was a contemporary of which Chola king?

Rajaraja I
Rajendra II
Rajadhiraja
Rajendra I

Ans: Rajendra I

  1. When was India first invaded by the Mahmud of Ghazni?

1192 AD
1001 AD
1003 AD
1112 AD

Ans: 1001 AD

  1. Who was Mahmud of Ghazni?

A. A Persian conqueror
B. A Turkish conqueror
C. An Indian conqueror
D. A Mongolian conqueror

Ans: B. A Turkish conqueror

  1. Which temple did Mahmud of Ghazni invade in 1025 AD?

A. The Golden Temple in Punjab
B. The Kashi Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi
C. The Somnath Temple in Gujarat
D. The Meenakshi Temple in Madurai

Ans: C. The Somnath Temple in Gujarat

  1. Who was the scholar entrusted by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni to write an account of the subcontinent?

Malik Jayasi
Al-Baruni
Amir Khusrau
Shah Latif

Ans: Al-Baruni

Al-BirünTKitab al-Hind is a book written by Al-Beruni and is an important source of Historians.

  1. Mahmud Ghazni’s last famous expedition to Hindustan was against:

Somanath
Kalinjar
Kannauj
Mathura

Ans: Somanath

  1. Sultan Mahmud came to India from which of the following city of Afghanistan?

Jalalabad
Ghazni
Kabul
Kandahar

Ans: Ghazni

  1. Who was the founder of the Ghazni dynasty?

A. Mahmud Ghazni
B. Sabuktigin
C. Afrasiyab
D. Alp Arslan

Ans: B. Sabuktigin

  1. Mahmud Ghazni claimed descent from which legendary king?

A. Cyrus the Great
B. Darius the Great
C. Xerxes the Great
D. Afrasiyab

Ans: D. Afrasiyab

  1. Who was the author of ‘Shahnama’?

Utbi
Firdausi
Alberuni
Barni

Ans: Firdausi

Alberuni was a renowned philosopher, a mathematician, and a historian.
His famous book is “Tahqiq-i-Hind”, in which he portrays the social, political, religious, and economic condition of India.
The famous book Tarikh-i-Firoz Shah was written by Zia-ud- Din Barni.

  1. What is ‘Shahnama’?

An epic of 50,000 couplets which poetically depicts Iran’s creation
An epic of ‘Moroccan Literature’
A compilation of Arabic short stories
All of the above

Ans: An epic of 50,000 couplets which poetically depicts Iran’s creation

  1. What was one of the reasons behind Mahmud Ghazni’s conquest of India?

A. To spread Islam in India
B. To accumulate the vast amount of wealth that existed in India
C. To establish a caliphate in India
D. To convert to Hinduism

Ans: A and B

In fact, he is also known as shikan or destroyer of images.

  1. Which of the following Indian rulers was defeated by Mahmud Ghazni in his first attack in the year 1001 AD?

Jaya Pala
Sukh Pala
Chandra Pala
Anand Pala

Ans: Jaya Pala

Jaya Pala – was a famous ruler from Hindushahi Dynasty, which extended from Punjab to Kabul. He ruled the Hindu Shahi kingdom from 964 to 1001 CE.
He was defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni (997-1030) in Ghazni’s first attack in the year 1000 AD. Jayapapa also fought the famous battle of Peshawar in the year 1001 with Mahmud of Ghazni but was defeated.
He was succeeded by his son Maharaja Anandapal.

  1. In which year did Mahmud Ghazni first invade modern Afghanistan and Pakistan?

A. c.800 CE
B. c.900 CE
C. c.1000 CE
D. c.1100 CE

Ans: C. c.1000 CE

  1. Who did Mahmud Ghazni defeat in the Battle of Waihind?

A. Anandapala
B. Jayapala
C. The Sultan of Multan
D. The Khokhars

Ans: B. Jayapala

  1. Between which years did Mahmud Ghazni attack the rulers of Multan?

A. c. 800–802 CE
B. c. 900–902 CE
C. c. 1004–1006 CE
D. c. 1104–1106 CE

Ans: C. c. 1004–1006 CE

  1. Who fought in the Second Battle of Waihind?

A. Mahmud Ghazni and Anandapala
B. Mahmud Ghazni and Jayapala
C. Mahmud Ghazni and the Sultan of Multan
D. Mahmud Ghazni and the Khokhars

Ans: A. Mahmud Ghazni and Anandapala

  1. Despite having numerically larger forces, who lost the Second Battle of Waihind?

A. Mahmud Ghazni
B. Anandapala
C. The Sultan of Multan
D. The Khokhars

Ans: B. Anandapala

Khokhars (a brave war tribe of Punjab)

  1. Who was appointed as the Governor of Multan by Mahmud in 1008 AD?

A. Sukhpal
B. Fateh Daud
C. Anandapala
D. Jayapala

Ans: A. Sukhpal

  1. Why was Sukhpal appointed as the Governor of Multan?

A. Because he was a skilled warrior
B. Because he was a trusted advisor of Mahmud
C. Because he embraced Islam
D. Because he was the rightful heir to the throne

Ans: C. Because he embraced Islam

  1. What did Sukhpal do after being appointed as the Governor of Multan?

A. He continued to rule as a loyal servant of Mahmud
B. He gave up Islam and began to rule as an independent ruler
C. He converted to Hinduism and declared war on Mahmud
D. He abdicated the throne and went into exile

Ans: B. He gave up Islam and began to rule as an independent ruler

  1. Who was appointed as the ruler of Multan after Mahmud invaded it again?

A. Sukhpal
B. Fateh Daud
C. Anandapala
D. Jayapala

Ans: B. Fateh Daud

  1. In which year did Mahmud take Thaneshwar and burn the temple of Mathura?

A. c.1010 CE
B. c.1014 CE
C. c.1018 CE
D. c.1022 CE

Ans: B. c.1014 CE

  1. Who was the Chandella king defeated by Mahmud when he sacked Kannauj?

A. Trilochanapala
B. Bhimapala
C. Vidhyadhara
D. Bhima I

Ans: C. Vidhyadhara

  1. Which temple did Mahmud plunder in his 16th expedition?

A. The Golden Temple in Punjab
B. The Kashi Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi
C. The Somnath Temple in Kathiawar, Saurashtra
D. The Meenakshi Temple in Madurai

Ans: C. The Somnath Temple in Kathiawar, Saurashtra

  1. Who repaired the Somnath temple after Mahmud left?

A. Trilochanapala
B. Bhimapala
C. Vidhyadhara
D. Bhima I

Ans: D. Bhima I

  1. Who did Mahmud return to punish in c.1026 CE?

A. The Jats
B. The Chandellas
C. The Hindu Shahis
D. The Chalukyas

Ans: A. The Jats

Mahmud led his last major expedition in 1027 AD against the Jats of Sind.
He plundered the colonies of Jats and set them on fire. He slaughtered the men and enslaved women and children.
This was the last invasion of Mahmud against Hindustan.

  1. Where was Al-Biruni born?

A. India
B. Khwarizm
C. Persia
D. Egypt

Ans: B, (present day Uzbekistan)

  1. Who did Al-Biruni come to India with?

A. Harun al-Rashid
B. Saladin
C. Mahmud of Ghazni
D. Umar ibn al-Khattab

Ans: C. Mahmud of Ghazni

  1. What is the name of Al-Biruni’s work that is written in Arabic and divided into 80 chapters on various subjects?

A. Kitab-ul-Hind
B. Kitab-ul-Islam
C. Kitab-ul-Arab
D. Kitab-ul-Persia

Ans: A. Kitab-ul-Hind

Mahmud of Ghazni was Afghan. His name is taken from his birthplace, the town of Ghazni, which is in central Afghanistan today. His mother was an Iranian aristocrat from Zabulistan, so he is of mixed Afghan-Iranian extraction, but not Turkish.

Turkish Conquest in India

  1. What was the real name of Muhammad Ghori?

Sehansha Muhammad Ghori
Maha Maheem Muhammad Ghori
Chatrapati Muhammad Ghori
Shahabuddin allias Muizuddin Muhammad Ghori

Ans: Shahabuddin allias Muizuddin Muhammad Ghori

  1. Who was defeated by Muhammad Ghori in the Battle of Chandavar in 1194?

Kumarpal
Jaychand
Govindaraj
Bhima II

Ans: Jaychand

Muhammad Ghori defeated the Jaychand in the battle of Chandavar.
The Battle of Chandavar was fought in 1194, at Chandavar.
Chandavar is situated on the bank of the Yamuna River of the present-day Ferozabad district.
King Jaychandra was the ruler of Kannuj.
Jaychand was from the Gahadavala dynasty.
During the war, Jaychandra fell off from his elephant and died.

  1. Muhammad Ghori was defeated by a _ ruler in 1191.

Maurya
Chalukya
Chahamana
Gahadavala

Ans: Chahamana

The best-known Chahamana ruler was Prithviraj Ill (1168- 1192), who defeated an Afghan ruler named Sultan Muhammad Ghori in 1191, but lost to him the very next year, in 1192.

He was defeated in many battles, notably by Chahamana ruler Prithviraj Ill (1178-1192 CE) in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 by Gujrati Chalukya ruler Mularaja II (1178 CE), and by the rulers of the Khwarazm Empire.
The Second Battle of Tarain established the Ghurid rule in India with the chief Rajput ruler Prithviraj being beaten.

  1. When did Muhammad Ghori die?

1202 A.D
1192 A.D
1191 A.D
1206 A.D

Ans: 1206 A.D

He fought two important battles, i.e.
The first battle of Tarain in 1191 A.D, where he was defeated by Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan.
The second battle of Tarain in 1192 A.D where Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan defeated and killed by him. In 1206 A.D,
Mohammad returned from Ghazna and crushed the rebel in Punjab, but when he was returning, he was killed at Jhelum.

  1. Muhammad Ghori was defeated by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat in

1192 AD
1191 AD
1185 AD
1178 AD

Ans: 1178 AD

The Battle of Kayadara (1178):
Gujarat was ruled by Mularaja II (1175-78: Chalukyan Dynasty) he was young at the time of Coronation.
In 1178, Mohd. Ghori crossed the desert and marched towards Gujarat.
Naikidevi (Mother of Mularaja) met forces of Ghori at Kayadara (near Mount Abu).
Naikidevi inflicted a major defeat to Muhammad Ghori and he was forced to retreat.
In 1178 itself, Bhima II, brother of Mularaja II succeeded Mularaja II.
As both the brothers occupied the throne during 1178, hence some historians also credit Bhima II with defeating Mohd. Ghori.

  1. Match the following governors of Muhammad Ghori and the territories where they ruled almost independently after the death of Muhammad Ghori.

a. Yaldoz – Delhi
b. Kubacha – Bengal
c. Muhammad- ibn-Bakhtyar – Indus
d. Aibak – Afghan Mountains

Ans: a4, b3, c2, d1

Ghori first invaded Multan in 1175 AD. At this time, Karamati, the followers of the Shiites were ruling. These Karamati were Buddhists before becoming Muslims. Ghori won the Multan.
Ghori did the second invasion on Gujarat in 1178 AD but Moolraj II defeated him in the foothills of the Abu Mountains.
This was the first defeat of Muhammad Ghori in India. This war was conducted by Nayika Devi, the wife of Moolraj.

  1. Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori in a battle in the year _ but lost to him the following year.

1182
1163
1191
1176

Ans: 1191

The first battle fought by the Rajputs is the Battle of Tarain in 1191.
In this war, Prithviraj of the Chauhan Dynasty defeated the Mohammed of Ghori, at Tarain near Thaneswar.
The Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 was fought at Tarain only, in which Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammad Ghori. Muslim power in India was laid by this.

  1. Who among the following was the commander of Muhammad Ghori, and also founded the slave dynasty in India?

Iltutmish
Ghiyasud din Balban
Aram Shah II
Qutub-Din Aibak

Ans: Qutub-Din Aibak

  1. The first Invasion of Muhammad Ghori was in _ when he attacked Multan.

1287 AD
1475 AD
1089 AD
1175 AD

Ans: 1175 AD

He was the founder of Muslim rule in India. He ruled from 1173 to 1206.
Qutb-ud-din Aybak was his successor and the first Muslim Sultan of Delhi.

  1. The Battle of Chandawar was fought between Mohammad Ghori and Jaichand of Kannauj of the __ dynasty.

Gahadavala
Bactrian
Gupta
Chauhan

Ans: Gahadavala

  1. Sultan Muhammad Ghori who defeated Prithviraja Ill in 1192 was a ruler from

Afghanistan
Persia
Iran
Egypt

Ans: Afghanistan

  1. Prithviraj Ill, who defeated Sultan Muhammad Ghori in 1191 was a _ ruler.

Chahamana
Chedi
Ganga
Gahadavala

Ans: Chahamana

Prithviraj Ill popularly known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora was a king from the Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty.
He ruled Sapadalaksha, the traditional Chahamana territory, in present-day north-western India.
He controlled much of the present-day Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi; and some parts of Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh.
His capital was located at Ajayameru (modern Ajmer).

  1. When Muhammad Ghori was trying to penetrate Gujarat, who among the following rulers from Gujarat defeated him?

Jayasimha Siddharaja
Mularaja I
Bhimdev Solanki II
Bhima II

Ans: Bhimdev Solanki II

When Muhammad Ghori attacked Anhilwara of Gujarat then under the rule of Bhimdev Solanki II had to face the defeat near Mount Abu.
He was then ruler of Gujarat and defeated him at the village of Kayadara (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara).

  1. Who fought Mohammad Ghori at Battle of Tarrain in 1191AD and 1192 ?

Lakshmana Sena
None of them
Jaichand
Prithvi Raj Chauhan

Ans: Prithvi Raj Chauhan

  1. In which of the following year Mohammed Ghori attacked on Gujarat?

1175 AD
1178 AD
1192 AD
1194 AD

Ans: 1178 AD

  1. In which year was the first expedition against Multan led?

A. c. 1170 CE
B. c. 1175 CE
C. c. 1180 CE
D. c. 1185 CE

Ans: B. c. 1175 CE

  1. What was the outcome of the first expedition against Multan?

A. It was largely successful
B. It was a failure
C. It resulted in a stalemate
D. The outcome is unknown

Ans: B. It was a failure

In the same campaign, he captured Uchch (in Upper Sindh) from the Bhatti Rajputs and established a fort there.

  1. From whom was Uchch captured?

A. The Mughals
B. The Bhatti Rajputs
C. The British
D. The Mauryas

Ans: B. The Bhatti Rajputs

The conflict between Muizzuddin Muhammad and Prithviraj Chauhan III started with rival claims for Tabarhind. In the battle, which was fought at Tarain in 1191 AD, the Ghurid forces were defeated.
Muizzuddin Muhammad’s life being saved by a young Khalji horseman. Prithviraj conquered Tabarhind but he made huge error by not threwing out the Ghurids from the Punjab.

The Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 AD is regarded as one of the turning points in Indian history. Muizzuddin Muhammad had made careful preparations for the contest. Prithviraj had fielded a force of 3,00,000 including a large body of cavalry and 300 elephants, but the Turkish army was better organised. Many rajas sent contingents to help him, but Jaichandra, the ruler of Kannauj stayed away.

Prithviraj escaped but was captured near Saraswati (Sirsa). The Turkish armies captured the fortresses of Hansi, Saraswati and Samana and also captured Ajmer. Prithviraj might have ruled over Ajmer for some time as coins of that period are found having the date and the legend Prithvirajadeva on one side and the words Sri Muhammad Sam on the other side.
After the battle, Tomar ruler of Delhi was dethroned and Delhi was made a base for further Turkish advance into the Ganga valley.

  1. In which year did Qutab-ud-din Aibak capture Aligarh and Ranthambore?

A. c. 1190 CE
B. c. 1195 CE
C. c. 1200 CE
D. c. 1205 CE

Ans: B. c. 1195 CE

  1. Who was the Solanki king of Gujarat who initially defeated Aibak?

A. Bhima I
B. Bhima II
C. Bhima III
D. Bhima IV

Ans: B. Bhima II

  1. Which region did Aibak conquer after his battle with Bhima II?

A. Punjab
B. Rajasthan
C. Gujarat
D. Maharashtra

Ans: C. Gujarat

  1. Which region, ruled by the Chandella Rajputs, did Aibak conquer next?

A. Bundelkhand
B. Mewar
C. Marwar
D. Malwa

Ans: A. Bundelkhand

  1. Who was the general of Muhammad Ghori who conquered Bihar and Bengal?

A. Qutab-ud-din Aibak
B. Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji
C. Mahmud of Ghazni
D. Sabuktigin

Ans: B. Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji

  1. In which year did Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji conquer Bihar?

A. 1195 CE
B. 1197 CE
C. 1200 CE
D. 1202 CE

Ans: B. 1197 CE

  1. Which universities were destroyed by Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji?

A. Aligarh Muslim University and Delhi University
B. Nalanda and Vikramshila
C. University of Calcutta and University of Madras
D. University of Bombay and University of Allahabad

Ans: B. Nalanda and Vikramshila

  1. Who had to come to India to crush the revolt of the Khokhars in c.1205 CE?

A. Qutab-ud-din Aibak
B. Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji
C. Mahmud of Ghazni
D. Muhammad Ghori

Ans: D. Muhammad Ghori

  1. Where was Ghori killed in 1206 CE?

A. in Pakistan
B. In Ghazni
C. In Delhi
D. In Multan

Ans: A. Near Dhamyak district of Jhelum (now in Pakistan)

  1. Towards which pilgrim centre did Bakhtiyar Khalji march with an army?

A. Varanasi
B. Nadia
C. Haridwar
D. Rishikesh

Ans: B. Nadia

  1. Who was the Sena ruler ruling the area that Bakhtiyar Khalji marched towards?

A. Prithviraj Chauhan
B. Raja Bhoj
C. Lakshmana Sena
D. Harsha Vardhana

Ans: C. Lakshmana Sena

  1. What was the reaction of Lakshmana Sena to Bakhtiyar Khalji’s attack?

A. He fought bravely against Bakhtiyar Khalji
B. He was scared by the attack and left his capital
C. He formed an alliance with Bakhtiyar Khalji
D. He surrendered to Bakhtiyar Khalji

Ans: B. He was scared by the attack and left his capital

  1. Which capital did Bakhtiyar Khalji occupy without any opposition?

A. Delhi
B. Lakhnauti
C. Kannauj
D. Multan

Ans: B. Lakhnauti

  1. How did Bakhtiyar Khalji die?

A. He was killed in a battle
B. He was stabbed to death by one of his own amirs
C. He died of old age
D. He was poisoned

Ans: B. He was stabbed to death by one of his own amirs

Although, Bakhtiyar Khalji was severely defeated by Magh rulers of Assam and he was able to come back with a few followers. One of his own amirs stabbed him to death.

The Umayyad general Muhammad-bin-Qasim, introduced the jizya in India in 712 A.D. when he conquered Sind. It was abolished by Akbar.
The jizya tax was a fee that Muslim kings imposed on Hindu citizens in exchange for protection. It was originally imposed in India by Qutb-ud-din Aibak. The Mughal emperor Akbar abolished the jizya tax in the 16th century, but Aurangzeb reinstated it in the 17th century.

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